Jefferson and Europe
Subject Source: Local sources
Found in 28 Collections and/or Records:
Scope and Contents Jefferson sought to prevent expansion of European colonization in America, in addition to gathering scientific information (botany, zoology, geography and geology), by sending a government-sponsored exploratory party to the American West. He issued a confidential message to Congress in 1803, requesting funds for an expedition to send men to explore the territory that extended to the Pacific Ocean. His initial message to Congress did not emphasize the scientific nature of the expedition;...
Dates: E332.2 .A5 2003A
Scope and Contents The larvae of the Hessian fly (Mayetolia destructor), which destroyed wheat crops, began spreading across America from the Northeast in the late 18th and early 19th centuries (it reached Monticello around 1811 and now resides wherever wheat is grown in the United States). Jefferson took an interest in studying and stopping or eliminating the pest but, overwhelmed by political duties (and Federalist stabs at his scientific pursuits of all kinds), left Thomas Mann Randolph and Samuel L. Mitchell...
Dates: E332.2 .A5 1991N
Scope and Contents Jefferson’s expenditures and receipts for the year 1812-1813 serve as a model for his lifetime struggle to balance extravagant expenses of slaves and family, as well as guests to be wined and dined, with a fluctuating income as planter, politician, and retired gentleman.
Dates: E332.2 .A5 1985N
Scope and Contents Dr. Benjamin Smith Barton, professor of botany and natural history at University of Pennsylvania, and Samuel Latham Mitchill, physician-naturalist and Congressman, both lauded Jefferson for his passion for and contribution to the science of botany. Barton honored him by naming the twinleaf plant Jeffersonia dyphylla (in the Linnaean nomenclature, introduced in 1753, that Jefferson so admired).
Dates: E332.2 .A5 1992A
Scope and Contents Ever in search of improvements and innovations in the agricultural life of his country, Jefferson took special interest in importing dry, mountain, or upland rice to replace the cultivation of the coastal rice in America (the swampy plantations were breeding grounds for malaria). He beseeched the Vietnamese Prince Nguyen Anh for the dry rice of Cochin China, with the aid of friend Benjamin Vaughan received from Sir Joseph Banks (influential in English plant exploration and in many ways similar...
Dates: E332.2 .A5 1990A
"Delicious Flowering Shrubs" and Cape Bulbs in the Monticello Greenhouse by Peggy Cornett Newcomb, (April 1997), E332.2 .A5 1997A
Scope and Contents Jefferson’s interest in all things botanical meant that his garden and greenhouse contained a number of unusual plants that originated in other parts of the world. Many of the European elite maintained greenhouses (orangeries) from the 18th century onward, and Jefferson planned to establish a greenhouse at Monticello to permit him to grow more delicate plants, seeds, and bulbs throughout the year. Initially he planned to have a free-standing, two-story structure on Mulberry Row but ultimately...
Dates: E332.2 .A5 1997A
Harmonies of Liberty: A Divertissement in the Spirit of 1789 by Lucia C. Stanton, (April 1989), E332.2 .A5 1989A
Scope and Contents An account, divided into scenes as of a play, of transatlantic friendship in Scotland, France, and America in the early years of the French Revolution. Dugald Stewart (Scottish professor and brilliant speaker), neighbor to poet Robert Burns, and Jefferson, lover of Scottish ballads (including the pastoral dialect of Burns’ poetry), came together in Paris in 1789 as witnesses to the events surrounding the Estates-General convention and the storming of the Bastille. Jefferson also found in...
Dates: E332.2 .A5 1989A
Scope and Contents Diary entries from Ellen Randolph Coolidge’s travels in Great Britain in 1838-39 serve as a record of the political, social, and artistic life of London, ranging from the national loyalty to young Queen Victoria, to the tasteless nature of superfluous columns in architecture. Her adventures in London, the English countryside (Cowes), and Edinburgh evoke memories of life in Virginia. She recalls tales of Europe told by Martha Randolph (educated at the convent in Paris) and Thomas Jefferson...
Dates: E332.2 .A5 1994N
Scope and Contents The identification of longitude was one of the serious endeavors of scientists both professional, such as Astronomer Royal Nevil Maskelyne of Greenwich, and amateur, including Thomas Jefferson. While Maskelyne collected calculations of astronomical phenomena and projected the moon’s position in Nautical Almanac and Astronomical Ephemeris (which, along with John Harrison’s 1773 "discovery of longitude" with a consistently accurate time-piece, proved invaluable to navigation), Jefferson toured...
Dates: E332.2 .A5 1996A
Scope and Contents Although Jefferson was not a linguist and professed distaste for the profession of law, he was committed to adapting the language and laws of the new Republic to suit the governed and be accessible to them. His revolutionary outlook is embodied in his advocacy of an ever-expanding English language dictated by usage, and adept use of language to author bold legislation in the founding of the nation while making his profession more the voice of the people than their legal representation or...
Dates: E332.2 .A5 1998A
Kenwood by Ann Lucas, and The Currency of Reason by Lucia C. Stanton, (April 1994), E332.2 .A5 1994A
Scope and Contents First essay: General Watson, senior military aide to Franklin Delano Roosevelt, built Kenwood in 1939 as a weekend retreat. FDR stayed at Kenwood at least four times between 1941-45, including the weekend before D-Day (June 6, 1944). Second essay: Jefferson sought to bring uniform standards to the currency of the new country. During his visits to Europe, he collected coins from various countries and investigated ways to create coinage. The lack of a uniform currency hampered the economy...
Dates: E332.2 .A5 1994A
Scope and Contents Jefferson had mixed feelings about dogs, as they were both dangerous -- as predators when not properly fed and as disease-carriers when rabid -- and useful farm animals. He obtained Bergère, an intelligent and industrious sheep dog from France, whom the slave Isaac recalls along with some of Jefferson’s other eccentrically named pets and animals. Though Jefferson sympathized with Judge Richard Peters (who in 1810 complained of the dangers of dogs to sheep) and Peter Minor of Albemarle (who...
Dates: E332.2 .A5 1989N
Scope and Contents Contains a listing of the various cookbooks owned by Jefferson, although none of the original books has survived. Because of Jefferson’s interest in French cuisine, his library contained eight cookbooks written in French, although he did also have books that contained Virginia recipes, including Mrs. Mary Randolph’s The Virginia Housewife.
Dates: E332.2 .A5 1971A
Scope and Contents In six accounts, denoted by different locations, dates, and musical arrangements played and by whom, various instruments played or related to those played by members of the Jefferson family are discussed. A 1786 Kirckman was purchased by Jefferson and played by Martha Jefferson in Paris in 1789, and yet another given to Maria Jefferson in 1798. Jefferson encouraged musicianship in his daughters and subsequent generations (Martha, Maria, Ellen Randolph and her aunt Virginia Cary were all skilled...
Dates: E332.2 .A5 1991A
My Long Day of Life compiled by Lucia Stanton, Zanne Macdonald, and Kristin Onuf, (April 1993), E332.2 .A5 1993A
Scope and Contents An abridgement and combination of texts, including Jefferson’s (self-curtailed) autobiography and personal letters and documents, providing a summary of his life (major events, dates, and figures) in his own words, from birth to his last known letter and reflections on a life well-lived.
Dates: E332.2 .A5 1993A
Scope and Contents As president, Jefferson took pains to entertain and feed the members of the convening Congress often and well, providing both an agreeable and less formal table (round rather than rectangular to facilitate conversation and avoid ranking guests, and invitations from Th. Jefferson rather than the President were just a few of his innovations) and the finest cuisine prepared by his French chef, Honoré Julien. Among the other French agents that added to the elegance of Jefferson’s White House were...
Dates: E332.2 .A5 1988A
Scope and Contents As president, Jefferson adopted, as a personal habit and model for Washington society, a manner of intentional informality. He instituted random ("convenient") seating assignments of dinner guests with the policy of "pell-mell" and passed, as a form of social legislation, the "Health Law," which banned toasting at the dinner table. In addition to stamping out an old English custom, the "Health Law" limited political conversation (and thus partisan animosity) at dinner and elicited positive...
Dates: E332.2 .A5 1986A
Scope and Contents The mutual respect and friendship as well as the political partnership between Jefferson and Madison are well documented in the personal letters and exchange of writings (as they were published) and goods during Jefferson’s residence in Paris as Minister to France in 1784. While Madison reported on the Virginia Assembly, the Confederation Congress, and Constitutional Convention, Jefferson enthusiastically bought books and little inventions to send home to his friend. Upon reading and taking...
Dates: E332.2 .A5 1987N
Scope and Contents Dr. Benjamin Rush, longtime friend of John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, was the foremost advocate for introduction of maple sugar as a substitute for the slave-produced cane sugar of the West Indies, and was also a vocal proponent of temperance (highlighting spirits as the real concern). Jefferson shared Rush’s ideals and joined him in his campaign to commercially destroy black slavery in the West Indies, purchasing maple sugar and attempting to grow the trees at Monticello, though Jefferson’s...
Dates: E332.2 .A5 1990N
Scope and Contents Jefferson was a life-long admirer, student, and designer of architecture. His ever-evolving plans for Monticello included his own simplified version of the Delorme dome (which he saw at Halle au Blé, Paris in 1786 and to which he refers in his famous “Head and Heart” letter to Maria Cosway, excerpt included), the serrated “zig-zag” he invented for the low-grade roof, and the tin-coated iron shingles he used and advocated (first applied by Ase Brooks but later by “a common negro man”). Though...
Dates: E332.2 .A5 1992N
Scope and Contents Upon Jefferson’s death, his dire financial situation required the sale of Monticello and most of the belongings to pay off his debt. The house fell into disrepair as it was transferred from one owner to another, until finally Jefferson Levy (the nephew of one of the past owners) purchased it and restored the House to its earlier grandeur in the late 19th century. Ultimately, Levy agreed to sell his home for $500,000 to the Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation in 1923; the Foundation has...
Dates: E332.2 .A5 2001N
Scope and Contents An account of Jefferson’s activities in book collecting, reading and cataloging his various libraries. The 1815 sale of his library to the Library of Congress allowed Congress to replace the congressional library that had been burned by British troops in 1814. Congress voted by a slim margin to acquire the books, and the country benefited tremendously by the establishment of this extensive national repository for a small financial cost. Although the fire in1851 destroyed many of Jefferson’s...
Dates: E332.2 .A5 2002A
Scope and Contents Thomas Jefferson, "the father of weather observers," was an amateur meteorologist committed to climate observation and documentation at home and abroad. Although meteorological instruments were never perfected in his day (he experimented with three types of hygrometers in Paris), Jefferson meticulously recorded his observations, including temperature and conditions, twice a day and analyzed his data for averages and correlations between weather and biological events.
Dates: E332.2 .A5 1982N
Scope and Contents Thomas Jefferson went to Paris in 1784, where the Duke Louis-Philippe-Joseph d’Orléans had recently opened the expanded Palais Royal, designed by Victor Louis. Jefferson recorded his daily activities and transactions there in his Account Book, indicating that he frequented the Palais, which had become the center of commerce, entertainment, and gossip in Paris. He was inspired by the convenience and aesthetic appeal of the architecture, and was also first introduced to the physionotrace, a new...
Dates: E332.2 .A5 1978A
Scope and Contents Captain Joseph Miller and his daughter came to the US on the Lydia in 1813 and finally reached Albemarle County after many delays and disasters brought on by the war with Britain. Miller was well received and Jefferson, pursuing his interest in useful scientific pursuits and a desire to experiment with brewing his own beer at Monticello, soon befriended the British brewer. Miller trained Peter Hemings, who went on to produce fine, much-demanded ale (at first with wheat malt and eventually corn...
Dates: E332.2 .A5 1995A
Thomas Jefferson and "the finest statuary in the world" by Susan R. Stein, (November 1997), E332.2 .A5 1997N
Scope and Contents The famous French sculptor Jean-Antoine Houdon executed likenesses of well-known figures such as Voltaire, Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, and Lafayette, and created the best-known portrait of Thomas Jefferson in 1789. Jefferson’s residence in Paris, exposure to art there, and Houdon’s training, sculpting process, and famous works are outlined.
Dates: E332.2 .A5 1997N
Scope and Contents During his residence in France in April 1787, Jefferson journeyed through the Alps to Italy on a mule. He kept a careful journal of the climate, vegetation, and agriculture on his travels and was delighted to note the geographical link between the adventures in his ancient Latin books (such as Hannibal’s attack on Rome) to his own passage. Jefferson took special interest in the olive as an efficient and multi-purpose tree; he mapped the geographical boundaries of the olive’s cultivation and...
Dates: E332.2 .A5 1987A
Scope and Contents Jefferson attended many lectures and exhibitions, the 18th century proto-museums, at home and abroad. He particularly enjoyed those featuring live creatures such as sea mammals, jungle quadrupeds, and various birds, and was fond of observing unusual or talented hogs and horses. Jefferson made careful study of American mammals to prove that they were not degenerating compared to European mammals (as the Comte de Buffon argued) but were in fact superior in size and strength. He also proposed that...
Dates: E332.2 .A5 1986N